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Nobody is missing the importance of vaccinating babies and children according to the Spanish childhood vaccination schedule for 2020. Although it is true that it is the pediatrician who is in charge of advising parents about the need to vaccinate children according to their age, it is not uncommon for us, as parents, to know which vaccines they touch, what they are for and if they have side effects.
How many doses should be put of this or that vaccine? Against what will you protect my child? Has the 2020 vaccination schedule changed anything from the previous year? If you also have doubts of this type, do not stop reading the vaccination guide for Spain that we have prepared. We started!
According to the Ministry of Health in Spain, babies must be vaccinated from birth until they reach 18 years of age. From there, the vaccines diverge and can vary according to each region. These vaccines are responsible for helping the immune system of babies and children so that you can create the necessary defenses to act in case of possible childhood diseases.
The Ministry of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare of Spain has already agreed to the approval of the common 2020 vaccination schedule for the entire peninsula. The 2020 childhood vaccination schedule begins with a first vaccination when the baby is in the womb and will last until 18 years of age.
This calendar emphasizes the importance of vaccination on the dates corresponding to the age of the minor in order to control immunopreventable infections at all stages of childhood in children. It is noted that the establishment and implementation of said calendar in each respective territory is the responsibility of the autonomous communities. These are the vaccines contemplated:
- Whooping cough and flu
The mother is advised to get vaccinated against pertussis during pregnancy. It will be a single dose between weeks 27 and 36 of gestation. On the other hand, in flu season, pregnant women will be vaccinated in any trimester of gestation.
- Diphtheria and tetanus (dTpa)
A dose of these vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus will be given in pregnancy from the 27th week of gestation, being preferred at week 27 or 28. In turn, babies will be given at 2, 4, 11 months, at 6 and 14 years and between 15 and 18 years.
A combination vaccine will be administered to minors who have already been vaccinated at 2, 4 and 11 months at the age of 6 years. Those vaccinated at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months (being 4 doses in total) will receive a dose of dTpa.
- Poliomyelitis (VPI)
A vaccine is recommended at 2, 4, and 11 months as well as a combination DTaP / IPV vaccine at 6 years. Those who received the vaccination at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months (being 4 doses in total) will receive dTpa without poliomyelitis VPI at 6 years of age.
- Measles, rubella and mumps (MMR, TV)
2 doses will be given at 12 months and between 3 and 4 years. This same measles, rubella and mumps vaccine may be administered in later years to susceptible or previously unvaccinated persons.
- Hepatitis B (HB)
Babies will be vaccinated at 2, 4 and 11 months as long as a high coverage of prenatal screening of the pregnant woman is ensured. On the other hand, babies of HBsAg positive mothers will be vaccinated with a schedule in these months 0, 2, 4 and 11. The first dose of the Hepatitis B vaccine will be administered in the same hospital in the first 24 hours of the child's life along with the administration of anti-HB immunoglobulin.
- Meningococcal disease
This vaccine will be given at 4 months, 12 months, and 12 years. In the case of the vaccine at 4 months, depending on the vaccine used, the primary vaccination with 1 dose (4 months) or 2 doses (2 and 4 months of age) may be necessary.
- Chickenpox (VVZ)
Varicella vaccination is given at 15 months and between 3 and 4 years. In adolescents who have not passed the disease and have not been vaccinated in childhood, 2 doses will be administered separated by a minimum interval of 4 weeks.
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
It is advisable to give this vaccine at 12 years of age. It will only be administered to girls, it will be 2 doses with a separation of at least 5 or 6 months.
We cannot forget that, as explained in the study carried out by Dr. Corina A. García-Piña, Dr. Arturo Loredo-Abdalá and Dr. Selene Sam-Soto, entitled 'Human papillomavirus infection in children and its relationship with sexual abuse 'and published by the National Institute of Pediatrics of Mexico, HPV infection through sexual transmission is the most frequent in the world, to the point that the World Health Organization already includes it within threats to global public health. In the case of children, sexual abuse is always referred to to find the source of contagion. However, and as explained in this research, there are also other possible causes such as perinatal transmission during childbirth, for example.
Many experts ask that this Human Papilloma Virus vaccine also be applied to boys and adolescents.
- Pneumococcal disease
This vaccine will be administered at 2, 4 and 11 months. In adult life it will also start at age 65.
As in previous years, it must be added that there are two vaccines that are not funded in most communities but that are highly recommended by all pediatricians, they are rotavirus and meningococcus B, these vaccines will be given in 2 or 4 doses in infants depending on the months of life they have.
We must mention that the Spanish Ministry of Health will take advantage of any contact with the health system to publicize the importance of following the vaccination schedule, especially with regard to little-known vaccines such as the human papillomavirus for girls, hepatitis C or meningococcal vaccines so that no person is exempt from following the 2020 childhood vaccination schedule.
The calendar just published by the Ministry of Health includes the possible updates that have been introduced since the approval of the previous calendar in November 2018. One of the most relevant modifications is the establishment of wider age ranges for the administration of vaccination in susceptible or previously unvaccinated persons in the case of MMR, diphtheria, tetanus, Men ACWY and varicella vaccines.
Recommendations for premature babies are also included. The recommendation of vaccination against rotavirus is introduced as well as the annual seasonal flu vaccination in pregnant women and in those born before the 32nd week of gestation.
As we have said before, vaccines are responsible for creating the necessary antibodies so that babies and children can cope with possible infectious diseases. Once the body has generated the antibodies, it can react correctly to aggressive microorganisms in childhood and in adult life.
The Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (CAV-AEP) has also updated for this 2020 its recommendations regarding the vaccination schedule in childhood and adolescence. Its main objective is to promote the dissemination of a single vaccination calendar in which the principle of equality in the prevention of diseases in childhood and adolescence. In said calendar it is emphasized that the Ministry of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare has agreed on a common calendar for life proposed by the Interterritorial Council in which some notes from the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (AEP) are collected such as:
- The incorporation of pneumococcal and varicella vaccination.
- The reduction of the age of application of the vaccine against human papillomavirus to 12 years.
- The 2 + 1 guideline for hexavalent vaccines and in 2019 quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination in adolescents up to 18 years of age.
- Pending requests are pending vaccination of pertussis (Tdpa) in adolescents and human papillomavirus in 12-year-old men. Rotavirus vaccination and meningococcal B vaccination in infants.
It should be noted that the 2020 Childhood Vaccination Schedule of the Pediatric Association does not discriminate between funded and unfunded vaccines since it considers that all are systematic vaccines that should be applied to all children and adolescents.
Following the 2020 childhood vaccination schedule will be of great help for your children. Now you have in your hand all the recommendations to do it.
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